Learn more about Xe, our latest money transfer services, and how we became known as the world’s currency data authority. Adopting the euro eliminated foreign exchange risk for European businesses and financial institutions with cross-border operations in the increasingly integrated EU economy. The fiscal and monetary prerequisites https://forex-review.net/ for adopting the euro have also encouraged deeper political integration of member states. Launched in 1999 as part of the EU’s integration as the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the euro was strictly an electronic currency until the introduction of paper notes and coins denominated in euros in 2002.

  1. Located in Frankfurt, Germany, the ECB is an independent and neutral body headed by an appointed president.
  2. The notes and coins for the old currencies, however, continued to be used as legal tender until new euro notes and coins were introduced on 1 January 2002.
  3. Additionally, there are various nicknames for the currency including, Ege (Finnish), Pavo (Spanish), and Euráče (Slovak).
  4. There is also a cost in structurally keeping inflation lower than in the United States, United Kingdom, and China.

At present, the euro is legal tender in 20 out of 27 European Union member states,[8] in addition to 5 countries not part of the EU (Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City, Andorra and Montenegro).[9] Kosovo also uses the euro,[9] but is only partially recognised as an independent state. These binding economic and legal conditions were agreed in the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and are also known as ‘Maastricht criteria’. All EU Member States, except Denmark, are required to adopt the euro and join the euro area, once they are ready to fulfil them. In order to join the euro area, EU member states are required to fulfil so-called ‘convergence criteria’.

The definitive values of one euro in terms of the exchange rates at which the currency entered the euro are shown in the table. Since the USD is the world’s reserve currency, virtually all multinational corporations, banks, and governments require large quantities of USD in order to satisfy their routine financial obligations. Often, these firms rely on the eurodollar market to satisfy these short-term funding needs. Although it is difficult to obtain reliable estimates of the size of the eurodollar market, recent estimates have placed it at nearly $14 trillion.

Greece initially failed to meet the economic requirements but was admitted in January 2001 after overhauling its economy. The euro is the monetary unit and currency of the European Union, represented by the symbol €. It began as a noncash monetary unit in 1999 before being issued as currency notes and coins in 2002. The euro replaced the national currencies of participating EU states and some non-EU states. Since globalization has led to a sharp rise in cross-border transactions in recent decades, many banks find themselves needing to access deposits of local currency in different regions throughout the world. This has led to a large and active eurocurrency market, in which international banks regularly exchange and lend foreign currencies with one-another out of their eurocurrency deposits.


Check live rates, send money securely, set rate alerts, receive notifications and more. Create a chart for any currency pair in the world to see their currency history. These currency charts use live mid-market rates, are easy to use, and are very reliable. These are the average bittrex review exchange rates of these two currencies for the last 30 and 90 days. However, it is important to understand that the base currency of the pair is fixed and always represents one unit. Thus, the source of the strengthening and/or weakening is not reflected in the rate.

The world’s most popular currency tools

We keep an eye on and report on the use of the euro outside the euro area. We are developing future banknotes to make them more secure, sustainable and relatable to Europeans of all ages and backgrounds. Find out about the different steps in the process and how you can get involved. For local phonetics, cent, use of plural and amount formatting (€6,00 or 6.00 €), see Language and the euro.

The euro as the official currency

Our currency rankings show that the most popular Euro exchange rate is the EUR to USD rate. As of January 2014, and since the introduction of the euro, interest rates of most member countries (particularly those with a weak currency) have decreased. Some of these countries had the most serious sovereign financing problems.

The pair represents a combination of two of the biggest economies in the world. It is affected by factors that influence the value of the euro and the U.S. dollar in relation to each other and to other currencies. Use of the Euro outside the EU

A number of sovereign states that are not part of the European Union have since adopted the Euro, including the Principality of Andorra, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of San Marino, and the Vatican City. The Euro is used as a trading currency in Cuba, North Korea, and Syria and several currencies are pegged to it. Bulgaria has negotiated an exception; euro in the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet is spelled eвро (evro) and not eуро (euro) in all official documents.[123] In the Greek script the term ευρώ (evró) is used; the Greek “cent” coins are denominated in λεπτό/ά (leptó/á).

US Dollar to Euro stats

For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states of the union as of 2002. The coins also have a national side showing an image specifically chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be freely used in any nation that has adopted the euro. In addition to the rise of international transactions, another explanation for the use of eurocurrency throughout the world concerns regulation. For many banks, borrowing from other banks through the eurocurrency market can be a faster and more efficient way to access short-term financing as compared to finding alternative sources of funding within their home market.

The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all participating states have done so. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. The Maastricht Treaty was amended by the 2001 Treaty of Nice,[19] which closed the gaps and loopholes in the Maastricht and Rome Treaties. The currency is also used officially by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members,[7] the British Overseas Territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members also use the euro as their currency. Additionally, over 200 million people worldwide use currencies pegged to the euro.

For instance, South Korean won (KPW) deposited at a bank in South Africa would be considered eurocurrency, even if no European currency is involved. Since 1995, the Xe Currency Converter has provided free mid-market exchange rates for millions of users. Our latest currency calculator is a direct descendent of the fast and reliable original “Universal Currency Calculator” and of course it’s still free!

How does the euro help Europeans do business?

Although €100, €200 and €500 notes are also available, they aren’t commonly accepted retailers. On the other hand, the eurozone brought together economies with disparate characteristics and national budgets without the authority for the sort of cross-border fiscal transfers that take place between the U.S. federal government and U.S. states. The Xe Rate Alerts will let you know when the rate you need is triggered on your selected currency pairs. These are the lowest points the exchange rate has been at in the last 30 and 90-day periods.

The rates were determined by the Council of the European Union,[note 6] based on a recommendation from the European Commission based on the market rates on 31 December 1998. They were set so that one European Currency Unit (ECU) would equal one euro. The European Currency Unit was an accounting unit used by the EU, based on the currencies of the member states; it was not a currency in its own right. They could not be set earlier, because the ECU depended on the closing exchange rate of the non-euro currencies (principally pound sterling) that day. Due to differences in national conventions for rounding and significant digits, all conversion between the national currencies had to be carried out using the process of triangulation via the euro.

Use as reserve currency

According to the ECB, as of January 1, 2017, more than €1 trillion are in circulation in the world. The euro makes our lives simpler by enabling citizens to live, work and study abroad more easily. At the ECB, we safeguard the euro so that you can make the most of all that Europe has to offer. Located in Frankfurt, Germany, the ECB is an independent and neutral body headed by an appointed president. This president must be approved by all member countries and serves an eight-year term. In general, those in Europe who own large amounts of euro are served by high stability and low inflation.

The euro is the official currency of the European Union (EU), adopted by 19 of its 27 member nations. It is the world’s second most popular reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, and the second most traded. Value of Obsolete National Currencies

Euro bank notes and coins began circulating in 2002 with old notes and coins gradually being withdrawn from circulation. The precise dates that each old currency ceased being legal tender and their official fixed rates are shown in the table below. Although all EU countries are part of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), 20 of them have replaced their national currencies with the single currency – the euro.

The EU is a union of separate nations joined under one governing structure. The euro is now the single currency replacing individual monies for 19 of 28 nations who joined the EU, or the Eurozone. The euro is the official currency of 20 European Union countries which collectively make up the euro area, also known as the eurozone.